79

Why are “the rich” more able to identify the party which represent their interests than “the poor”? Mostly, because your assumption is just that, an assumption, and is an incorrect one at that. I won't go down the rabbit hole of disputing your Marx-influenced class based assumption that somehow, left wing parties[1] represent interests of "the poor" ...


73

There are so many false assumptions in your question. But one that wasn't addressed by the other answers is this: There are a lot of people who vote based on their moral principles. Whether rich or poor, one can believe that the proper role of government is to help to poor. Or one can believe that charity should not be compelled by law. One can believe that ...


45

I'd say anyone who tells you they have "scientific" information on media bias isn't being objective. But it is entirely possible to present a "systematic" information on media bias, and at least one online source with that goal is https://mediabiasfactcheck.com. They have an explicit methodology, which says: When determining bias, there isn’t any ...


43

The "anti-war" rubric is mainly a conservative conflation of a lot of different Centrist, Leftist, and (non-authoritarian) Rightist positions. I mean, it is often blithely applied to wide ranging movements like: Pacifism, which opposes mass violence for moral and/or religious reasons Anti-draft movements, which oppose forcing young people to risk ...


27

The source of this is Erica Chenoweth, and her value is 3.5% of the population mobilized. It was given in her TEDx talk https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YJSehRlU34w Transcript is on internet archive: https://web.archive.org/web/20200718085610/https://rationalinsurgent.com/2013/11/04/my-talk-at-tedxboulder-civil-resistance-and-the-3-5-rule/ Researchers used ...


19

I'll take you through a Thought Experiment to show why this isn't really possible. Imagine you were trying to judge whether networks A, B, and C were 'biased' on the coverage of, say, "Should the US offer aid to the rebels of [country name]?" So, you might think, well, they should have facts from all sides. Present all the facts. Have people on to ...


19

The complete proposal was presented in an annex to a letter from Iran's permanent representative to the UN Secretary-General. The letter and annex are hosted on the UN's website with document number S/2019/862. The letter reads: It is a source of grave concern that, after more than seven decades, the question of Palestine is still unresolved and the ...


18

Your question fails to take into account that not everyone is concerned with how taxation affects them. I can comfortably say that because I don't make that much in the grand scheme of things taxation policy has to swing pretty wildly to make much of a difference for me to care. I am generally left leaning, but not because of my strong opinions on fiscal ...


18

Many studies have been conducted to test exactly this question. This study from 2012 asked participants 4 factual questions about international events, and 5 questions about domestic ones (questions like "It took a long time to get the final results of the Iowa caucuses for Republican candidates. In the end, who was declared the winner?") Nobody did very ...


18

Assuming (everyone in) the electorate knows the probability distribution of votes for the candidates and votes strategically, and assuming this distribution has no ties (whatsoever), Duverger's law can be derived formally as a limit when the electorate is infinite, i.e. there being only a two-party equilibrium in such case; see Palfrey (1989): we show that ...


17

If you looking in the USA, the source of data would ultimately come from legally required campaign finance and financial disclosures filed with the FEC (Federal Elections Commission). FEC: Campaign Finance Data FEC: Campaign Finance Disclosure Search However, things get murkier with assorted PACS, "dark money" and third party "independent" expenditures. ...


17

Obama got elected. Long story short, you'll notice that the anti-war Left got really quiet right around the time that Obama got elected. With a Democrat in power, it was no longer in the interests of the Democratic Party to fund or organize rallies protesting the President, and as a result, the anti-war protests rapidly died away. Unfortunately, I don't have ...


17

I think this is another issue that could do with a Special Providence analysis. According to Mead there are 4 competing schools of US Foreign Policy, basically divided via what their international goals are (trade, security, ideals, or US independence), which ultimately means they have different standards for when they want things ignored, when they want ...


14

The data for the stringency index linked in the question comes from the University of Oxford's Covid-19 Government Response Tracker. In order to calculate this index, manually collated data on policy decisions is used - these are described in their GitHub repo here, and fall into a number of categories: C - containment and closure policies E - economic ...


13

From the viewpoint of someone born into a sub-working class family (my grandfather died in his early thirties leaving his family in Dickensian poverty), I would observe that “working class” is not an intrinsic human characteristic. But the “working” aspect is real. I worked my way through seven years of trade schools (engineering and law) to gain middle ...


13

One contender is technocratic, as in technocratic left. A technocracy is characterized by expert leadership, which values long-term well-being of the country over short-term popularity. If you look at the least populist leaders in the diagram, you'll find Merkel and Macron. They are indeed often described as technocratic leaders.


13

You may not remember it, but the Iraq war was new horrors each month for years, and the government was in favor of keeping it going. It was very protestable and very newsworthy. Whereas today there's no war and everyone in power is against war. There's not much to protest or cover. At first in the Iraq war, buildings with civilians got bombed. Later road-...


11

What is the opposite of populism? Elitism Merriam-Webster's definition of populist (1): 2) a believer in the rights, wisdom, or virtues of the common people So the opposite would be a non-believer in the rights, wisdom, or virtues of the common people. Which sounds a lot like elitism 1) leadership or rule by an elite (1) The first definition is "...


9

PoloHoleSet's answer covers the federal level. Below that, individual states usually have their own organizations for tracking this data and making it available. They will often track this kind of data for publicly elected officials at the state level and below, such as counties and cities. An example is the Washington State Public Disclosure Commission....


9

It can be effective, but often is not. An occasion where it was, that happened to me. Back in the early 2000s, I found an interesting little book on Amazon.co.uk, a study by the RAND Corporation of the UK's capabilities and infrastructure for building nuclear-powered submarines. It made a convincing case that if the sole shipyard capable of building them had ...


9

The Hungarian text of the law, entitled "2021. évi LXXIX. törvény: a pedofil bűnelkövetőkkel szembeni szigorúbb fellépésről, valamint a gyermekek védelme érdekében egyes törvények módosításáról" (on stepping up action against pedophile offenders and amending certain laws to protect children) can be read as published by the Hungarian Nemzeti ...


9

It's impossible to prove a negative, but I will propose the answer is no, there is no such term and happily retract if someone finds one. Consider the use case for such a system: The justification for these kinds of systems is that a candidate who gets n% of the vote deserves n% of the power. At a quick glance, 40% of the time of a given term may seem like ...


9

For a full answer, one would first have to define free speech. Possible definitions range from "lack of government censorship" (as implied by the American First Amendment) over "freedom of expression" (as in the German GG Art. 5, where it is qualified by libel and child protection laws) to a blanket "freedom from the consequences for ...


8

Brexit is a more defined example of this phenom, but it's pretty true with any vote. Most elected officials have multiple year terms (given a mandate for multiple years) and the electorate that put that official in is not the same as the electorate at the end of the term (a 17 year old doesn't get to vote, and the next chance he/she will have 4 years later ...


8

Very interesting, yet very complex question, to discuss in a few lines. First of all, need to clarify the subject a bit. Every political party is nothing but a mirror of the class it represents. Thus, political parties function as agents of the interests of the social group or class they come from, as Gramsci has pointed out. “Although every party is the ...


8

No. I spent a lot of time in political theory courses, including some time spent with original Greek texts. However, never once did I hear of anything called a "cryptarchy" or any philosopher espousing a kind of secret government. Personal observation is weak, so here are a few other things to consider: Google NGram Viewer can search Google Books for ...


7

According to CATO (page 5), the "State-Level Expenditures" of marijuana prohibition in the US was $5,386,753,000 annually, as of 2008, a figure encompassing judicial, incarceration, treatment, and other costs. On the federal level specifically, according to the U.S. Sentencing Commission's 2018 numbers, there were 2,118 federal inmates incarcerated for ...


7

I found one 2018 study finding that policemen who were former military veterans had fired their weapons more often than non-veteran policemen. The study does have a somewhat narrow geographical scope... https://www.themarshallproject.org/2018/10/15/police-with-military-experience-more-likely-to-shoot Researchers at the University of Texas School of Public ...


7

On page 14 of the report, a footnote (partly redacted) says: SM-2230634, serial 44 (analysis). The FBI case number cited here, and other FBI case numbers identified in the report, should be treated as law enforcement sensitive given the context. This suggests that the SM-####### notation is an FBI case file number, included as reference for those who have ...


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