50

This is trivially untrue. I haven't researched the earliest peaceful transfer of power, but here's the wikipedia article for the UK general election of 1708. That was the first UK election following the union of England and Scotland and So not even the first peaceful transition of power in England. Which is almost 100 years earlier. I feel confident you ...


42

Sorry, I think you are out of luck here. NATO and EU are open to (constitutional) monarchies, for example Belgium is a member of both. The EU is restricted to democracies, and while there are no explicit requirements on government type for NATO, in practice, all members have been broadly capitalist and democratic. Both organisations have regional ...


41

Another revolution, obviously. They did that in 1649. Much more likely, they would politely inform the Queen that the people don't seem to want a Queen any more. If that is really the case, and not just a vocal minority, then after some polite back and forth the Queen would probably step down rather than fighting a civil war which she is unlikely to win. ...


25

If anything it is the other way round. The key political difference between Sunni and Shia Islam is the status of the family of the prophet. In Shia Islam, God chose Ali, who was Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, and Muhammad's closest blood relative as the leader of Muslims after Muhammad. The leaders of Shia Islam claim a direct bloodline to Ali. In ...


23

There are two sides to the claim: what happened, and what's significant about it. It's not hard to come up with a variety of accurate claims that what happened in 1800 was some kind of first, but the one you pose isn't one of them. Just to address the title, "was the 1800 US presidential election the first intentional, peaceful transfer of national control?" ...


14

A single counterexample is enough to prove a negative. Germany is a parliamentary republic (people elect the parliament which then elects the chancellor as head of government) and it has a constitution. (Some people cling to the fiction that the German constitution be not a constitution because it is not called ‘constitution’ but Basic Law (Grundgesetz), ...


14

As I understand it, the intention in the Iranian revolution was to create an Islamic democratic republic, not a theocracy or authoritarian state. The point to keep in mind here is that all democratic republics are by nature balancing acts between various interests and concerns. In the US model, which Iran follows, executive, legislative, and judicial powers ...


13

There is actually a simple answer, grounded in language, but not unique to English. Czech and Dominican--in the given examples--are adjectives, therefore if you were to describe someone or something from those countries, you would say that they were Czech or Dominican (e.g. a Czech beer, where the adjective Czech modifies the noun beer). Without the noun "...


13

The Oath doesn't preclude republicanism. (Subject to interpretation, of course.) Note that the oath (or solemn declaration) only commits the MP to "true allegiance" to the reigning monarch of the day. I (name of Member) swear by Almighty God that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth, her heirs and successors, ...


11

Because most other Presidential Republics are not a Union of States that are sovereign in and of themselves The thing about the United States is that they are... erm... states, as opposed to arbitrary blobs on a map that have been used to divide up territory. Those states joined the Union under a very deliberate arrangement where it is understood that the ...


11

During Golden Age of Athens, power was transferred between competing factions (and tyrants) multiple times. Citizens from opposing factions sometimes were exiled (ostracized), and tyrants re-invited back to rule, like Alcibiades


10

There are lots of republican MPs (probably including the Leader of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition). Some of them have taken the Loyal Oath with their fingers crossed behind their backs. At the moment, it's not worth campaigning for a republic because polls show that the public is overwhelmingly in favour of the monarchy. That could easily change when ...


10

The opposite of a parliamentary republic is a presidential republic. In a parliamentary system, the people elect a legislature and the legislature elects a government. In a presidential system, the people elect a government and a legislature. Both may or may not have a written constitution. The United Kingdom is widely accepted as a democracy, yet they ...


9

OK, I'll take a swing at it, but in all honesty the real TL;DR answer to your question is "because it has little to do with politics, and is a reality of how language works and evolves, and a downside of English being a vague language". Something opposite to a democracy, like in "US is a Republic, not a democracy" That's actually not quite correct. More ...


9

In recent years the constitutional settlement seems to be that significant changes to the constitution require a referendum. Now even supposing that all MPs took the oath of allegiance entirely literally. There would be no breaking of this oath in legislation to enable a referendum on the abolition of the monarchy. The citizens swear no oath of loyalty and ...


9

It is not at all clear to me that the oath is intended to be taken literally or that it precludes republican principles. For example, in order to be nationalized as a Canadian citizen one must swear loyalty to the Queen, but the Supreme Court of Canada has held that: The reference to the Queen is symbolic of our form of government and the unwritten ...


8

Indirect election of leaders it's quite common. Sometimes it's more a technicality than a matter of political relevance, like for the President of the United States, sometimes it's an important aspect of political life, as in the case of parliamentary republics. The particularity of Switzerland is the directorial system, that is to say the collegial rule of ...


8

As someone who has been brought up in Iran after the revolution, I would say that Khomeinisme is not a democratic Ideology. The article 110 of Islamic Republic's constitution(endorsed by Khomeini and implemented during his lifetime) shows simply that Khomeinisme as well as Islamic Republic are far from any kind of democracy: Following are the duties and ...


7

This seems like a lot of questions. A couple answers: Is there a historical or current piece of Constitutional scholarship that reads the first portion of that clause as a pact between the Federal Government and the States, assuring that the Federal Government will be a republic? It is unnecessary for the federal government to guarantee that the ...


7

A republic is a system of government ruled by "the people" via election instead of having a monarchy. In the real world however not all republics are elective. Many of the Middle East's republics, for instance, are/were ruled by a president-for-life who often groomed their son for leadership. Both the republics and kingdoms of the Arab world are ruled by ...


7

Yes, France did in 1958. The current French fifth Republic is a semi-presidential system which replaced the previous parliamentary system in 1958. The Fifth Republic is the fifth and current republican constitution of France, introduced on 4 October 1958. The Fifth Republic emerged from the collapse of the French Fourth Republic, replacing the prior ...


7

There are lots of articles giving reasons against term limits, e.g. Brookings institute. An argument against term limits is that experience makes people better at their jobs. If someone is a successful and talented leader, why force them to quit? Why not let voters decide? Depending on your political beliefs, Franklin Roosevelt was arguably one of the most ...


7

The Europe Union, which is another example of the same, illustrates quite well why it's more convenient to have the executive and legislative branches of government in one place. The European Commission and the European Council, which are the executive branches, have their seats in Brussels. The European Parliament has its formal seat in Strasbourg. The ...


7

In a time when one of the fastest forms of communication was by horse, it would take a week to send a letter from Washington to New York. It could take three weeks to send a letter from Savannah to New York. So if the Supreme court was in Savannah, Congress was in the new Capitol of Washington, and the President was based in New York, then when the ...


6

It's less of a question of why they allow it, and more of a question of why they didn't create term limits. In the UK it appears that there was simply never much call for term limits or political will to implement them. The UK hasn't had problems with Prime Minsters overstaying their welcome.


6

There are long traditions of both Sunni monarchs and Shia monarchs in various countries. And some countries that claim to be "republics" are actually constitutional monarchies. For example: Syria's current "President" is an Alawite, who is aligned with Shia factions in Lebanon and Iran. But in practice, Syria is a constitutional monarchy, with dynastic ...


6

The five bullet points you list are not related to each other, outside of coincidence. For instance, a Republican is not a pro-Republic person in the same manner that a Republican isn't a person who wants everyone to read Plato's The Republic. Of your questions, only one is somewhat answerable in that a Republic and a Democracy do differ, but this has no ...


6

"Constitutional Republic" and "Parliamentary Republic" aren't mutually exclusive. A state can be both or neither. Any republic where the system of government is described by a written constitution is a constitutional republic. When the constitution says that the executive branch is legitimized by an elected parliament, then it is both a constitutional ...


6

Direct democracy is not a panacea. Take California's Proposition 13 - a nice gift to themselves by taxpayers*, but not matched with a similar restraint on spending and also deeply unfair to people moving around, which has economic implications for job mobility. Policy and budgeting by popularity contests has a number of risks when it comes to unpopular, but ...


5

Summary Guyana's predominant ethnic groups are Indians and Africans. It became independent of the Commonwealth and its first president steered it towards socialism, hence the slogan (and later name) including cooperatives. One of the reasons was also to "shift attention away" from racial tensions. Resources Milne wrote in 1975 (1) on p. 352 ...


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