36

According to the The Ashgate Research Companion to Secession only 7 countries out of 89 surveyed had any explicit provisions for secession in their constitution: Austria, Ethiopia, France (overseas territories only), Saint Christopher and Nevis, Singapore, the USSR, Czechoslovakia, and [the Union of] Serbia and Montenegro (of 2003). Some scholars argue that ...


35

First, the case of Alaska is far from exceptional. Many states are in territories bought from other states, conquered from other states (which, if you think of it, is just other kind of deal), exchanged for the lives of their previous rulers or just expropiated from their native inhabitants. The important fact is that the people in these territories ...


28

To be allowed to apply to join the EU, Catalonia as an independent nation must be able to demonstrate they meet the Copenhagen Criteria which are defined as follows Political criteria: Stability of institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights and respect for and protection of minorities; Economic criteria: A functioning market ...


25

No, internal conflicts and secession attempts do not qualify as “armed attacks” under the North Atlantic Treaty (itself based on the UN charter, article 51, which only covers actions between states). The most obvious historical example is the Algerian War, in which Algeria – then a part of France and covered by the treaty, as explicitly acknowledged in ...


25

The Good Friday Agreement, between the UK and Ireland provides for a non-violent route to the North of Ireland to become part of a united Ireland. It sets up conditions under which referendums must be held in both the North of Ireland and the Republic of Ireland (essentially, and if both approve then the British and Irish government have made a "binding" ...


18

Power comes from the barrel of a gun. And the will to use it. In this case, if Alaska as a state chose to leave, are there people with guns (and other tools) willing to stop them? Will they convince, force, or kill everyone who disagrees, or enough to make it a moot point? If so, Alaska will not have left. Laws and Constitutions are worth the paper they ...


17

Yes, there have been. Singapore is one prominent example. The history of the Republic of Singapore began when Singapore gained its independence and became a republic following an ejection from Malaysia on 9 August 1965. (Wikipedia) The merger in 1963 led to numerous economical and political difficulties and also racial tensions amongst Malay and Chinese ...


17

The treaty is geared towards international threats, so that would be unlikely. It could theoretically trigger article 4 of the treaty. The latter states that: The Parties will consult together whenever, in the opinion of any of them, the territorial integrity, political independence or security of any of the Parties is threatened. It got used only a few ...


15

An official legal secession of a state from the union is unprecedented and has no formal procedure. So the short answer to your question is that they are making it up as they go along However, it doesn't really matter because based on previous Supreme Court precedent a state is not allowed to secede from the US. This was brought up a few years ago when ...


13

From Texas v. White: There was no place for reconsideration, or revocation, except through revolution, or through consent of the States. So if the other states consent, California could secede. Unfortunately, there is no definition of what it would mean for the other states to consent. A constitutional amendment could definitely settle this. However,...


11

Chechnya was not a constituent republic of the USSR. Hence, I do not know why you refer to it as "one republic who did not gain independence". If you count Chechnya, why do you not count Tatarstan, Dagestan, Ingushetia, North Ossetia, Adygea, Kalmykia, Bashkiria, Yakutia and all other republics that constitute the Russian Federation. Independence of all ...


9

The question of the right to secession has been conclusively resolved in 1865, and distils down to "NO" . A bit longer legal analysis is at https://www.alaskabar.org/servlet/content/secession__another_dream_dashed_by_the_court.html


8

I don't think it's possible since there are no more Greeks in Turkey, both because the Greek genocide, perpetrated by the Ottoman Empire, and for the subsequent Population exchange between Greece and Turkey. There are some Greeks that still support the Megali idea, that is to say the recovery of the old greeks lands, usually in the far right, but they don't ...


8

Secessionist movements are dominated by those who feel marginalized by the current government to the point where they believe the best solution would be to start their own government to represent them. This can happen on the left or right depending on the country, based on what views tend to be least reflected by their government. The important factor is the ...


8

Two years ago I read a thesis written by a law graduate in Catalonia, which dealt with these questions. There are three legal theories on this: Spain continues to exist as a state, while Catalonia is a new state. In this case Catalonia would not inherit any of the treaties that Spain has signed, but would start with a clean slate. That would mean Catalonia ...


7

There's no "legal" path for a State to become a separate country in the Constitution or any of the laws we currently have, and therefore, such a feat would be impractical at best. Texas v. White brought up that issue for Texas, the the Court found that a State may not unilaterally secede. A State may only leave legally with the express permission of The ...


7

Sort of. Quebec had a few referendums about separation from Canada and eventually there was a Supreme Court of Canada ruling on it. It basically said (taken from the wikipedia article linked below): Unilateral secession was not legal. However, should a referendum decide in favour of independence, the rest of Canada "would have no basis to deny the ...


7

The homerule on Greenland and Faroe Islands are free to declare independence from Denmark. The Greenland case came up earlier this year when Trump tried to buy it from Denmark.


6

There's no easy answer here because each Federal government system is different. Let's contrast the EU with the United States (both are Federal systems in a general sense) How strongly united the people are More concisely, how nationalistic are the people for the Federal system? The United States has a pretty decent cohesion overall. Few people were cheering ...


6

I can think of several nations that did not have the right to secession that led to separate states. For example, the Soviet Union. Or the former Yugoslavia. Or what is now the United States when it was part of the United Kingdom. Claiming that there wasn't a right to secession still ended up with separation. And of course there are any number of ...


5

Well, first you have to convince Californians that they want to secede. Since there is no legal provision for this with California (some states may have negotiated deals that allow them to withdraw--although that's disputed), the only way to leave would be a constitutional amendment. Such an amendment could either create a general secession process or ...


5

Australia also has successionist movements, with the most prominent being that for Western Australia. A major stated grievance is not getting a fair deal of government resources considering what the state contributes to the country. All states in Australia primarily speak English. Non English speakers are either immigrants or indigenous people, rather than ...


5

Not the Civil War itself, but the court case that followed. In Texas v. White, there was a dispute in 1869 over who owned bonds issued to the state of Texas after being sold by the state legislature to fund the Confederate states during the Civil War. The majority opinion written by Justice Chase stated: The Union of the States never was a purely ...


4

Secession is something that can never really be resolved. In order to be a separate country/nation, you must have sovereignty over the land which requires you to not be beholden to the laws of the country you seceded from. What the Civil War established is that the U.S. is willing to fight a war to prevent secession, and winning that war would be required ...


4

Apparently, most of the examples are found in... surprise... the United States. Such as: California (NOT based on the Spanish language, so it counts) New England Independence Movement Texas Vermont Cascadia Alaska As a commenter noted, if you add history, you have the secession that prompted the US Civil War (and on the same page, you can add the Russian ...


4

Localization of government control is a partial solution and already provides some ability for Americans to choose the kind of government they want. However in a country where free trade and free movement of people between different parts of the country is protected by the Constitution, there will always be issues where the behavior of one local government ...


4

The Bavaria Party (Bayernpartei) advocates for Bavaria's independence from Germany. It does not have any representation at the federal or state level, but it does have four seats at the local level. There are a few other parties that seek to represent minority ethnic groups, but none of them are about the region itself.


4

Decolonization is part of the self-assigned goals of United Nations. The Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples was adopted by UN General Assembly in 1960. The United Nations keeps an official list of Non-Self-Governing Territories, currently including 17 territories for a total population of circa 2 million. None of ...


3

This is a matter respecting the integrity of the Constitution of the United States which, if breached, would predictably trigger catastrophic consequences on a global scale. So there are few options. All are unlikely to succeed. The options are: Amend the U.S. constitution to establish a procedure for one or more states to leave the union. Agree to ...


3

The state legislature(s) and federal Congress would have to approve the change, in a process similar to how new states are added. See especially Article IV, Section 3 of the US Constitution: New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be ...


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