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11

It's mostly a free-rider problem, which means there are mixed motives. At least according to orthodox economics, free-trade unhindered by customs duties, quotas and measures of equivalent effect benefits all participating economies. The theory behind this is based on economies of scale and comparative advantages. However, in the real world, governments ...


9

The fees are two-fold, depending on the value of the goods received. In this answer, I will concentrate solely on commercial shipments (i.e. you bought something from an internet sales company). The same generally applies to non-commercial shipments (i.e. your friend sending you a gift) albeit with different duty-free values. As the article lists German ...


9

After an investigation from 2011 to 2016 OLAF published its findings in 2017 https://ec.europa.eu/anti-fraud/sites/antifraud/files/olaf_report_2016_en.pdf On 8th March 2018 the Commission sent formal notice to the UK government https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/EN/MEMO_18_1444 In August 2018 a resolution passed in Strasbourg https://www....


9

It's hard to prove a negative, but ultimately the answer to this is likely to be no. These financial centres already exist. The source article is paywalled, but presumably it's talking about the business currently centered in London finding a new home. If there is one clear "replacement" location, all the business just shifts there. If the European ...


7

It appears that the deal contains broad declarations in ensuring "continued market access" for financial services. There is, however, no agreement on equivalence rights. The summary document from the UK noted that further discussions on "specific equivalence determinations" are needed. The Wall Street Journal noted that "[i]t isn’t ...


7

The single most important thing that NATO countries have (especially Europe and the United States) that Russia and China (less so NK) want isn't a product, per se - it's the opposite: staggeringly huge, cash-endowed consumer markets. One of the reasons so many goods are imported from China to the United States is simple economics: the demand for these goods ...


6

As I was reading more on this, Reuters pointed out that Brussels has only granted financial market access, known as “equivalence”, for two financial activities from Jan. 1, when Britain will have left the EU’s single market. The Bank of England has said there could be disruption in markets if no further access is allowed. Just minutes after Britain and the ...


5

the Enhanced Trade Partnership with India, on Feb 10th is an agreement to improve trade (although short of a comprehensive free trade treaty). The EU does not currently have a trade agreement with India. There is also the UK-Japan deal CEPA, signed back in October, however it can be seen as a modification of the EU-Japan deal that was signed in 2019 (after ...


5

The government is concerned about the Protocol's requirements (Article 7) that manufactured goods placed on the market in Northern Ireland (including medicines) comply with both EU and UK regulations - even if they are only to be consumed within NI. In fact, it argues that because medicines are so tightly controlled and regulated, there would be little risk ...


5

No, the implementation of some checks which would have taken place on October 1st 2021 has been delayed, and some checks have been delayed from January 2022 to July 2022, as announced to the Commons by Government Minister Penny Mordaunt on September 14th. However, the timetable for the removal of the current easements on checks is currently unchanged. The ...


5

No import checks on EU goods have not begun. The government's original plan was to introduce border checks on EU imports when the post-Brexit transition period expired at the end of 2020. In June that year it said these checks would be phased in, and then last March announced a further delay of several months. Yes, it will cause further disruption when ...


4

In such a scenario, the Commission's recourse is to launch infringement proceedings. It has done that in the past to force national customs administrations to collect duties or change their interpretation of some rules. On the other hand, I don't see any legal basis for any quarantining or similar measures. In fact, as far as I can tell, the treaties do not ...


4

Yes; May 26th - the date on which the Swiss Federal Council declined to sign the Institutional Framework Agreement (IFA) - was also the deadline for the renewal of the mutual recognition agreement (MRA) between the EU and Switzerland on medical devices. This came about due to the Medical Devices Regulation (EU) 2017/745 coming into full force on that date; ...


4

According to Irish Times: The overall agreement largely concerns issues that are shared EU powers like trade, but it does include some aspects that involve a mix of national and EU powers. Technically, this should mean that it requires ratification in national parliaments. However, national governments have the power to waive this requirement, and the ...


4

To aid henning's answer; there are some models that delve into this. Basically various groups within the same country are competing against each other by means of imposing external duties (tariffs of quotas). It's known as the "protection for sale" model. To quote from a review paper on this. Over the past decades, the Grossman and Helpman (1994) ...


3

Why couldn’t the U.S. have bought petroleum from Iraq after they took control over Kuwait’s oil supply? Part of the reason for the quick international action on Kuwait during Gulf War 1 was that the West was worried that Iraq could then menace the Saudi oil fields as well, which would have given them a huge leverage over the global oil markets (by ...


3

There's is actually a survey/study conducted in 2015 on the import costs on "small consignments" (packages under 1000 euros worth) from non-EU countries into the EU. Besides the things noted in Jan's answer (150 euros being the de-minimis value under which there is no customs/import duty per se levied), there is some variation for the other two ...


3

Conservative Minister Brandon Lewis, the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland seems to believe so. In remarks made on Question Time in late January 2020 he recommended companies that wish to trade in both the UK and EU set up or invest in Northern Ireland to take advantage of its unfettered access to both markets. "That’s going to mean, if you’re a ...


3

No. To avoid a "hard" border on the island of Ireland, Northern Ireland has effectively remained in the EU single market and EU rules and regulations apply. The rest of the UK has left the single market, and consequently, since goods imported into Northern Ireland are easily exported to the EU, they must be checked to conform to EU rules. This ...


2

The only parliaments that have to ratify it are the UK and the European, individual EU countries are not required to approve it. The odds of either of these rejecting it are very small. In the case of the EU Parliament, if it were to reject it, then it would be asked to vote again and again until it gave the "right" answer. See the various ...


2

Fall of the Ottoman empire It is not something that suddenly happened overnight and has been a long time in the making. From the fall of the Ottoman empire when Turkey completely lacked any defense industry infrastructure whatsoever. Defense industry of Turkey, General, Wikipedia Thus, no significant defense industry infrastructure was present during the ...


2

Chile banned Kinder Surprise in 2016. Not because of a choking hazard, but as part of a general restriction on using “toys, accessories, incentives or other similar items” as a means of promoting foods that don't meet certain nutritional requirements. The same law also affects McDonald’s Happy Meal toys.


2

The trade agreements are all entirely separate. If your country has separate agreements with countries A, B, and c, then all goods and services traded between you and your customers/suppliers are governed by the agreement between your country and the country the goods etc are going to/coming from. However, some deals can be rather complex; e.g. delivery to a ...


2

I don't think capturing the oil was a motivation for the US at all, but the oil markets played a big part in many of the events surrounding the war. After the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq took place in Jul 1990, oil prices spiked, reaching a peak in Sep 1990. Historical price chart - note, it is adjusted for inflation. Nominal prices were in the $10/barrel ...


2

I see Boris Johnson has been making a talking point out of cancer treatments: Thirty medicines are no longer available in Northern Ireland because of rules enforced at the border with the Republic of Ireland following Brexit, the Prime Minister has said. Speaking at the recent G7 summit, Boris Johnson reportedly said that the medicines and one innovative ...


2

A US embargo is close to a worldwide embargo because the US assert their power all over the world and claims that any foreign business having at least one branch or office in the US is subject to US laws. For example they fined for dozen of Billions all the major European banks for violating US sanctions with Iran. [1] Thus not only few businesses dare to ...


2

Depends. Either C has enough influence in B to make B drop the matter, or B has enough influence in C to make C enact similar sanctions, or B sancions an entity in C, weakening the alliance, or B accepts that the sanctions are less than perfect. This tends to be significant mostly when B is the United States, since most other countries realize that their ...


1

While the cuban economy has its greatest enemy on its government, the US embargo is in practice, a global embargo. The responsible of that is the Helms-Burton law, which declares: International Sanctions against the Cuban Government. Economic embargo, any non-U.S. company that deals economically with Cuba can be subjected to legal action and that company's ...


1

Giving a full set of reasons will be challenging. However, the most obvious set of reasons to keep ISDS decisions secret is the same set of reasons why regular court decisions might be kept secret. Those include a mutual desire of parties and national security interests. Note that the arguments of the opponents are misleading as they suggest the ISDS reasons ...


1

Trade agreements often have dispute resolution clauses. These define the institutions and processes to resolve disputes. These would normally be of the form of an arbitration committee that is there to sort the mess out. If nothing else is available the normal fallback is the dreaded World Trade Organization rules. All of these processes are like any ...


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