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Wikipedia writes: The most widely used families of Proportional representation (PR) electoral systems are party-list PR, single transferable vote (STV), and mixed-member PR (MMP). I take it you're asking about party-list PR as opposed to STV? One difference is that in party-list PR, the preference order is assumed to lie along party lines (and in some ...


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In the UK, elections, and referendums are decided by those who vote. Those who don't vote are ignored. There is no claim made that the voters form a statistically representative sample of the electorate. Merely that the winner of the election is decided only by the votes that are cast. From the AV election legislation: The Minister must make an order ...


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Accession to India by Maharaja Hari Singh, ruler of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, on 26 October 1947 In the case of India, it seems the government references the procedures established prior to Independence by which the rulers of princely states would decide whether their state would accede to India, accede to Pakistan or become an independent ...


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Yes, but doing so usually leads to being corrected by members who may believe it to be an honest mistake, or being reprimanded by the chair if it is clearly done with the intention to insult. Using a Minister's constituency title instead of their position would be seen as intentionally done, but still a perfectly legitimate form of address and in no way ...


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It always used to alternate between Brighton and Blackpool. The tradition is to hold party conferences away from London. It is necessary to hold them in a city or a resort (as smaller towns won't have the infrastructure to host large numbers of visitors). It is traditional to alternate between a more northerly city and a more southerly city (emphasising the ...


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I've managed to answer my own question to some extent. Despite the claims in comments that UK authorities would not have cared to provide such a comparative explanation... the ONS actually did: Britain also suffered the G7’s biggest drop in household spending, the ONS said, noting that the country’s lockdown restrictions have generally been tighter and were ...


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In general, yes, but not if the employee holds a 'politically restricted post', as defined by Section 2 of the Local Government and Housing Act 1989. This section defines a list of posts within a local authority which are always politically restricted: The following persons are to be regarded for the purposes of this Part as holding politically restricted ...


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No, the implementation of some checks which would have taken place on October 1st 2021 has been delayed, and some checks have been delayed from January 2022 to July 2022, as announced to the Commons by Government Minister Penny Mordaunt on September 14th. However, the timetable for the removal of the current easements on checks is currently unchanged. The ...


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No import checks on EU goods have not begun. The government's original plan was to introduce border checks on EU imports when the post-Brexit transition period expired at the end of 2020. In June that year it said these checks would be phased in, and then last March announced a further delay of several months. Yes, it will cause further disruption when ...


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Nationalization implies that an industry or service is run by the national government, or at least administered and regulated by a centralized national agency. Common ownership, by contrast, implies that the community of people served by an industry or service have more or less direct control over that industry/service without the national government acting ...


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Perhaps. But I'm sure the following is not what Sir Keir is suggesting Our mindset is dominated by the "(nation) state" with "government" model of social organisation. This has proven to be a very effective and stable structure. But it is possible to imagine anarchistic societies in which there is no central government. In such a model ...


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Sort of, but not really. I believe the claim is based on a 2019 analysis of Labour's renationalisation plans published by the CBI entitled Renationalisation: The Cost. This analysis estimated the total bill of Labour's plan of bringing Rail, Energy, Water and Royal Mail back into public ownership at £196 billion. Unfortunately, the document doesn't ...


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The Guardian ran an article in 2018 on the business owners still backing Brexit at that stage. These included James Dyson (Dyson) Jim Ratcliffe (Ineos) Helena Morrissey (Legal and General) Anthony Bamford (JCB) Tim Martin (Weatherspoons) Simon Wolfson (Next) This is fairly obviously not a complete list.


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Firstly, it's not quite correct to say that UK Government departments were traditionally named Ministries. The common use of the term Ministry to describe government departments was mostly introduced in the first half of the 20th Century. To take your examples: Ministry of Transport: established in 1919, assumed duties of the Road Board, and transport-...


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Generally speaking, taxes can only be established by Parliament through legislation. The council tax was implemented in the Local Government Finance Act 1992, and so it would take Parliament to amend or replace this act for the current system to change. Note that any scheme linked to the price of property - which is the case both now, and in the system ...


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Using the railways is not a short-term solution. To transport fuel (or anything, really) by rail you need the appropriate cars. These do exist but are in us in day-to-day operations and cannot easily be taken out of service for something else. Especially for liquid goods that aren't or cannot be containerised, you need special loading and unloading ...


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Jim Ratcliff reportedly did/does. And he is/was "ranked by the Sunday Times as Britain’s richest person, with a fortune estimated at £21bn" at least in 2018. Another article dubbed him a "fracking mogul" presumably because of his share in the UK pretrochemical industry. Supposedly he moved to Monaco "for tax purposes" though, in ...


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There are, perhaps, two types of "front" group. Those in which the "fronting" nature is an open secret, and those in which it is a true secret. Among the "open secret" are Sinn Fein, A front for the IRA. There is "Effective Education centre", known locally as a front for Dianetics and Scientology. There is the Alpha ...


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