108

Clitoridectomies are not equivalent to male circumcision. Clitoridectomies are equivalent to removal of the glans (the head of the penis, which contains most of the nerve endings that produce sexual pleasure). It is possible to do an equivalent of circumcision on a female: i.e., removing the clitoral hood which normally covers the clitoris, leaving the ...


67

The interstate State Compact, if it ever was implemented by states representing 270 or more electors would almost certainly be tested in court. Until it is tested in the Supreme court, nobody can authoritatively say if it is constitutional or not, The arguments would centre around whether the constitution should be read on the "plain meaning of the ...


48

Note that the manufacturer has worked around this ban by introducing the Kinder Joy It has plastic egg-shaped packaging that splits into two, one half contains layers of cocoa and milk cream and the other half contains a toy. Because the edible and non-edible parts are separated, this can be and is sold in the US. And since someone suggested in a comment ...


47

They have tiny pieces that are considered to be a choking hazard. There have been some high profile and tragic deaths among children due to choking on toys with small pieces. So the United States is especially stringent in regulating children's toys. The Kinder Surprise Eggs are considered especially dangerous as they are embedded in a food product. So a ...


46

Division of Powers Between State and Federal Governments There are some powers that are reserved solely to the federal government, some that can only be exercised locally or by the states, and yet others which can be (and are) exercised by all of the above. Powers Reserved Solely to the National (Federal) Government Several powers are reserved by the U.S. ...


46

There's a few reasons why, but the two largest are It's effectively a tax on cars (and a regressive tax at that). A Texas legislator noted that when introducing a bill to repeal Texas' law So let’s call these inspections what they really are: a tax on Texans’ time and money. [It] costs Texans an annual $267 million in fees alone. What’s arguably worse is ...


35

As Wikipedia indicates such state laws seem to have a curiously bimodal distribution. Some are two (or more) centuries old, and some are pretty recent, e.g. Arkansas has it since 1819 Alabama has it since 2014 South Carolina has it since 1712 South Dakota has it since 2003 Vermont has it since 2017 Virginia has it since 1661 I suspect the old laws have a ...


31

It takes time for things to change. 200 years ago slavery was legal. 50 years ago genital mutilation was acceptable, and so was electroshock therapy for gay people. Today those things sound like atrocities. Perhaps in another 100 years male circumcision will likewise be condemned, and (as far as religious beliefs are concerned) it may well become illegal to ...


27

The Law Bestiality is not a crime, per se, in five states, although in some cases it may constitute animal cruelty. In Colorado (where the enactment was fairly recent), bestiality is per se an act that constitutes cruelty to animals, but some states classify it is a form of immoral and indecent conduct, focusing on the immorality of the perpetrator rather ...


26

For the purposes of this answer I’ll only look at the rules for the democratic party (mostly because they were easier to find). In short, the DNC will not recognize any primary or caucus held before the first Tuesday in March, with exceptions carved out for Iowa, New Hampshire, Nevada and South Carolina. So if any states tried to leap-frog New Hampshire the ...


26

Just Me's answer covered the ruling pretty well, so I'll focus on the specifics of a grand jury. A grand jury proceeding is nothing like a jury trial. It is an investigative tool for the prosecution that is used to get authorization to collect documents and evidence, or to recommend that formal charges be brought. Supposedly, since it is a panel of regular ...


21

Trump would need to achieve a result changing outcome in three of the following six states: NV, AZ, PA, MI, WI and GA. Some are more vulnerable to challenge than others by virtue of involving smaller margins of victory for Biden. (This assumes that no challenges of results for Trump are overturned or changed in favor of Biden. North Carolina is the only ...


20

The "frame challenge" aspect of this answer is to note that, while the USA is stricter than many European countries, it is less strict than many other countries. Many majority Muslim countries ban alcohol outright, or put far greater limits on its sale than the USA. However drinking culture is more restricted in the USA than in Europe. The age at which you ...


19

Well right off the bat, let me say that the signs are legally irrelevant. Restaurants that do or do not have the signs have the same rights, regardless of whether they telegraph that to their costumers. As an analogy, homes without "No Trespassing" signs have just as much right to call the cops on trespassers. The main purpose of the signs is not to reserve ...


19

As described in other answers, the United States has banned the sale of candy with embedded toys since 1938. This photo of a poster from the FDA History Office (apologies for the low quality) explains why: The text reads: During the Great Depression, candy with a "prize" inside -- usually a coin or lead trinket -- was very popular. However, they could be ...


18

Precedent suggests that this would require Pennsylvania and New Jersey to consent, with the approval of Congress; Philadelphia would have absolutely no legal say in the matter, although it would be exceedingly unlikely that they would be kicked out without their consent. City Philadelphia's powers are those granted by its charter, which are those of local ...


18

Can state governments be overthrown without national government involvement? Yes. It happens sometimes when there's an election. Could state militaries over throw their own state government and establish a new state government and still be on good terms with the national government? Most likely no. Each state also has a constitution, and prescribes how ...


16

Unions can negotiate member only contracts if they want, but it wouldn't really help them at all. They have no power to say what non union members would be getting and non union terms are basically guaranteed to be the same or better than what the union can offer, because anything worse can be opted out of by joining the union. Therefore, the best possible ...


16

First off, to clarify: the executive of a town/city in USA is typically called a "mayor", not a "governor". The powers of a mayor may vary from state to state and city to city, BUT: Yes, mayors usually control local law enforcement (police). This is not a new concept - local law enforcement was a feature of British system - although at a regional, rather ...


16

Because the case is nowhere near over yet. In Trump v. Vance the Supreme Court merely decided that the President does not have absolute immunity from such state subpoenas, and the state does not have to satisfy a "heightened showing of need" to obtain the data (interestingly, the decision appears to be substantially based on Clinton v. Jones, where ...


16

By "single game of poker" the Journalist (who may not be a poker player) should have said "single poker hand". In other words, the cards are shuffled, five are dealt to each candidate (or their agent) and the better hand wins. There is no drawing of cards, and no betting so no skill. It is "wild west" and intentionally so. It ...


15

Journalists are allowed to write what they want. =) In practice, it is often reasonable to assume that the state overall results will have a similar distribution to the portion which is in. You can do hypothesis-testing to determine the likelihood of the vote reversing further down the line. Once it goes low enough, the journalists will call the election ...


15

Almost the entirety of foreign policy apparatus is laid out and reserved in Articles 1 and 2 of the Constitution, and therefore inherent in the Congress and the Presidency. For example the President has the power, with advice and consent of the Senate, to appoint Ambassadors, is Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces. Similarly the Congress can declare war....


14

No, but there's really no need for them to do so either. Remember, The Paris Accords were largely a do-it-yourself framework Here’s how the game works: The negotiating framework established at a 2014 conference in Lima, Peru, requires each country to submit a plan to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, called an “Intended Nationally Determined Contribution” (...


13

Practically, two main advantages to state level policies: Not all states have the same basic conditions. In California, with a sizeable Hispanic minority, it may make sense printing government forms both in English and Spanish. In Alaska, maybe not so much. A Federal law would either ignore one of the realities, or add at least a complexity level (if worded ...


13

Puerto Rico would officially ask to become a state (customary but not explicitly constitutionally required). Congress could pass a law admitting it as a state. You can read more about that here, which was previously posted in a comment. It's unclear how this would have changed aid. In theory, states have more influence on the political process than do ...


12

If X does not have a right to refuse to serve Y, that would imply that Y can legitimately compel X to provide service. In the absence of a particular reason why Y should be legitimately able to compel the service of X, the "right to refuse service" would thus exist as default and doesn't need to "come from" anywhere.


12

Georgia passed hate crime legislation in 2000 under Democratic governor Roy Barnes, but it was struck down by the Georgia Supreme Court in 2004: The Georgia Supreme Court unanimously struck down the state's hate crimes law Monday, saying the measure is so broadly worded that it could be used to prosecute a sports fan for picking on somebody wearing a rival ...


12

Let's consider the purposes of punishment: Incapacitation. We want to prevent the person from committing another crime. Retribution. We want to prevent circles of retribution by having a third party, the government, handle the punishment. Deterrence. We want to convince people not to commit that crime. This includes both the current perpetrator (...


12

In addition to Ted's excellent answer as to why female circumcision is significantly different, you'd have a problem with multiple religious groups that practice it as a rite. Orthodox Jews are directly commanded to perform it According to the Torah (Genesis 17: 9-14), Abraham was commanded by God to circumcise himself, all male members of his household, ...


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