# Tag Info

Accepted

### What is it called when someone votes for an option that's not their first choice?

It’s called tactical voting. From Wikipedia: In voting methods, tactical voting (or strategic voting or sophisticated voting or insincere voting) occurs, in elections with more than two candidates,...
• 13.5k

### What arguments are there against ranked-choice voting?

This problem can be solved by a system called ranked-choice voting, aka instant-runoff voting First off, there are multiple voting systems based on ranking your choices. The system you're describing ...
• 3,552

### How could I build a political system immune to gerrymandering yet still giving local representation?

Multiple, proportionally weighted, representatives per district. Gerrymandering is only an issue because a 50.001% majority for a precinct and an 80% majority are considered equivariant. We also ...
• 1,670

### What are the fundamental reasons for indirect presidential vote in the US?

The people weren't trusted It'll take a bit to get to the titular statement, as we need to discuss the history leading up to the Constitution to understand and justify it. Between the war for ...
• 16.6k

### Has there ever been a successful shift from a two-party system to a multi-party system in modern history?

New Zealand switched from first-past-the-post to "mixed member proportional representation (MMP)" starting in the 1996 election (https://nzhistory.govt.nz/politics/fpp-to-mmp). Seats won by ...
• 5,559

### Has negative voting ever been officially implemented in elections, or seriously proposed, or even studied?

This is functionally identical to range voting Mathematically, it is irrelevant which range you pick of a given size, be that 1 to 3, -1 to 1, or -997 to -995. Let's run your sample election at two ...
• 5,846

### Why does ranked-choice voting give such high preference to the second choice of the least-favored candidate's voters?

There's three main reasons: It's simple. Voters are giving instructions, "I want this candidate, and if I can't have them, I want this one instead, .... n." Voters understand how their vote ...
• 17.6k

### What is it called when someone votes for an option that's not their first choice?

As Andrew Grimm correctly pointed out it is tactical voting you are looking for. However, I would avoid harsh terms such as dishonest since Wikipedia also mentioned that: It has been shown by the ...
• 53.4k

### Why do referendums use a binary choice rather than a numerical score?

Because the system highly incentivises strategic voting. The voting system you describe is more commonly known as score voting, although it has plenty of other names. It's been used before in the USA -...
• 108k
Accepted

### How did Alaska "change its primary system recently" and was it "to dilute the possibility of a conservative or Trump-inspired challenger"?

Alaska Ballot Measure 2 made two big changes to elections, both of which are expected to reduce the power of the main parties: Party-run primary elections are replaced with non-partisan primary ...
• 26k

### Why doesn't the UK Labour Party push for proportional representation?

Because Labour gets more seats with regional representation. Even the famed Tony Blair landslide majorities were never actually a popular majority. In 2005, Labour won 55% of the seats with 35% of ...
• 2,264
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### What are the disadvantages to 2-round elections where the top candidates from the first round compete head-to-head in the second round?

In no particular order: Cost. Elections cost in time and money. Having a run-off election means that you have to pay twice. Not Condorcet. A candidate who would win in a head to head against every ...
• 123k

### Are there countries where only voters affected by a given policy get to vote on it?

The issue (this answer basically amounts to a frame challenge) is that drawing bright lines around who is properly understood to be impacted by a policy change is, as a practical matter, impossible. ...
• 17.6k

### Why is the new German parliament 12 % bigger?

The planned size of the Bundestag is 598 members: One directly elected member from each of the 299 electoral districts plus equally many members chosen from party lists in order to achieve a total ...
• 5,772

### Is it possible to use blockchain or public ledgers for voting?

you could be given a randomly generated GUID which can identify your vote, but cannot be reversed engineered to identify you, unless you tell someone else what your vote GUID This seems absurd to me, ...
• 1,181

### Why does ranked-choice voting give such high preference to the second choice of the least-favored candidate's voters?

This type of ranked-choice voting is effectively like doing a bunch of run-off elections all at once. In other words, assuming there are five candidates (A, B, C, D, and E), we could do the following: ...
• 71.6k

### How could I build a political system immune to gerrymandering yet still giving local representation?

Note: This answer was written when the question was on Worldbuilding SE, the site for building consistent fictional worlds. The German System (simplified): Germany uses a form of Mixed-member ...
• 112k

### Voting system with two votes as a defense against fear of voting for a loser - is it anywhere in the world?

This sounds like a variant of the single transferable vote (STV) system, except you're only allowing one "backup preference"; quoting Wikipedia: Under STV, each elector (voter) casts a ...

### How will New York City physically implement the ranked choice voting algorithm with thousands of unique mayoral votings possible?

How ranked choice voting ballots can be counted by hand I think the counting can be done by hand (using several 'passes' if necessary). For example, in Canada, according to CBC.ca (on ranked voting in ...
• 39.1k
Accepted

### Has negative voting ever been officially implemented in elections, or seriously proposed, or even studied?

Yes, this is called "Combined Approval Voting", "evaluative voting", or "dis&approval voting" and has been proposed and studied by a number of people, including exit ...
• 3,552

### Is there an operating political system in which an election can be invalidated because of a too little participation?

Yes, Article 81 of the Macedonian constitution (found here in Macedonian, or here in English) provides that the successful candidate in a Presidential election is elected by majority vote, provided ...
• 108k

### What electoral mechanisms might prevent the rise of a demagogue?

This was actually a big concern of the authors of the Constitution. They were thinking in particular of the example of Oliver Cromwell from their own father's generation. He gained power as Prime ...
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### How could I build a political system immune to gerrymandering yet still giving local representation?

Mediaeval Iceland style: Throw out the geographical restrictions entirely. Anyone who gets the backing of a certain number of people becomes a representative entitled to speak and vote at the ...
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### What electoral mechanisms might prevent the rise of a demagogue?

The possibility of populist demagogues rising to power is unfortunately a drawback of any democratic election system. Any system where you have an institution which is able to overrule a democratic ...
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### Name of a voting system where you can transfer your vote to anyone at any time

What you're describing sounds like a form of liquid democracy - described by Blum & Zuber (2016)1 as: a procedure for collective decision-making that combines direct democratic participation with ...
• 108k

### Has negative voting ever been officially implemented in elections, or seriously proposed, or even studied?

A certain kind of this voting actually happens in all elections in Latvia. The Central Election Commission’s website seems to have been redesigned recently and I can’t find descriptions/infographics ...
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### Is there a name for a voting system that is based on issues rather than people?

I'm not aware of any official name for what you're proposing (which basically combines referendum with candidate-matching). The closest - which isn't very close - I can think of is voting for party ...
• 92.8k