Anonymity is one of the desirable requirements of voting process in elections. Are there states where voting is not anonymous i.e. who voted whom is public?

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    US States, or "states" as in countries?
    – T.E.D.
    Commented Apr 24, 2017 at 17:58
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    @T.E.D. Or Mexican or German or Indian or Australian states? I suspect that any such state, or indeed a state in the sense of "country," would suffice as an answer to this question.
    – phoog
    Commented Apr 24, 2017 at 19:24
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    Worth noting, not all voting is desired to be anonymous. We like to say that it is desirable for the public to be able to vote in anonymity, but some votes, such as those cast be electors in the US electoral college, are explicitly public by design.
    – Cort Ammon
    Commented Apr 24, 2017 at 20:07
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    Non-private ballots were the norm until the late 19th century. Most votes in a partisan caucus are not cast by secret ballot, at least in Colorado.
    – ohwilleke
    Commented Apr 25, 2017 at 6:14
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    If historical examples are allowed, I think Prussia had an open ballot (and 3 clasees) voting system between 1850 and 1918.
    – Bregalad
    Commented Apr 26, 2017 at 6:40

2 Answers 2


It seems that Nigeria uses an open ballot system in order to minimize potential for election fraud.

As @CortAmmon states in the comments above, public voting is desirable in some cases. For example, in a representative democracy, it is important for constituents to be able to audit the votes of their representatives, to make sure the representative is faithfully representing the constituents' interests.


The Swiss Cantons of Apenzell and Glaris have a system where people vote in public, in the open air in front of everyone. The german name for that is Landsgemeinde, which translates roughtly in "Land's community".

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