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3

There is one (minor) legal obstacle to allowing non-citizens joining a German political party: §2 part 3 of the Law on Political Parties (Parteiengesetz) states that a political group is not a party if: a majority of its members or of its leadership is foreign; or its seat or its place of business is outside of federal jurisdiction. It seems highly ...


2

As mentioned in the comments, it is far from clear what "party discipline" means. One reasonable definition would be that the formal party apparatus can effectively direct party members on how they should act in their elective office. Two key words here: The formal party apparatus would be the DNC/RNC or something like that, as opposed to the ...


1

There is strong party discipline in the US it is just that it doesn't always get applied for every office for their voting habbits. This happens either from being removed from positions or a simple censure. https://www.cnn.com/2021/02/06/politics/liz-cheney-wyoming-gop-censure/index.html The Wyoming Republican Party voted Saturday to formally censure Rep. ...


1

According to a 2009 survey there were more countries that had (at least then) anti-defection laws. Sometimes these laws give the party a lot of power (to enforce party discipline), e.g. in an extreme case if one is expelled from the party for whatever reason, they lose their parliamentary seat as well. Chief examples of countries with such broad provision ...


-2

As for the question "Is there any other... ": there was such a country, the USSR. There was one party, the CPSU, and by the principle of Democratic Centralism, invented and promoted by the founder of that party, V.I. Lenin, every member of CPSU must obey all decisions of CPSU meaning, the decisions of the leadership of CPSU but they are supposed to ...


1

First past the post strongly favors the existence of two viable political parties in any given geographic area in the long run equilibrium. But, it does not prevent a multiparty system if different geographic areas have different sets of leading political parties. The U.K. and Canada are both examples of how this can work out. In addition to center-left and ...


4

The answer by @JamesK is very good but misses some key points that I expand upon here. In a parliamentary system, when, as the Democrats do now, the majority party holds a very thin majority, a vote against the majority party position by a member of that party (or the majority coalition if it is made up of more than one party) on an issue which has not been ...


5

The biggest difference to e.g. Germany is that the minor parties declare loyalty to either the left (red) or the right (blue) wing before the election. And part of the election is then that voters both vote for a party, and their known loyalty. Within the left or right block there could also be a debate about who gets to lead government, but that has been ...


15

Discipline is a combination of the carrot and the big stick. In Westminster type Parliaments there are both: The carrot of "Vote the right way and you'll get a chance at promotion" and the stick of "losing the whip and facing automatic deselection at the next election." Neither is very effective in the US system. Ministers are not ...


7

With US democracy (and many others) it is a principle that a person is elected as representative. In other words the people of District A do not just vote for "the Democratic party" but for "John Q Smith" who happens to be a member of the Democratic party. The Democratic party has specifically chosen to put John Q Smith as their candidate ...


0

Here in Chile, you can either run as an independent or under some parties' auspices (either being a member of the party or independent sympathizer). To run as a fully independent candidate you can't have belonged to a party for a longish time. So the parties can veto candidates here.


5

Unfortunately, there is no straightforward mathematical answer in terms of the odds for party C. As to the odds of party B winning seats, certainly, the answer is obvious. So the answer for you would have to depend on how strongly you disagree with the positions of party A. In most ways, a vote for party C would be termed a protest vote, whose value is ...


1

It is complicated, as there are lots of factors. As others have pointed out, the current data points at more deaths in red states. But initially cities (which tend to be blue) were hit the hardest. Another factor could be that since mortality affects the elderly, who usually tend to be more conservative, Republicans are likely to have been more affected, ...


3

I question the premise of the question. Insofar the cumulative death toll (per capita) isn't that skewed toward Republican states. Out of the top 6... 3 are still Democratic states, owing to deaths early in the pandemic being concentrated in cities on the East coast. KFF data last updated 9/24: As mentioned in the other answer(s), there's also the issue ...


5

A "heavy skew?" No way. Let's remember that, as of right now, around 700,000(source) people have died in the US from COVID. In the 2020 election, admittedly a bit of an outlier, 159 million people voted(source). Even if 100% of the COVID deaths were from Republicans only, we'd be talking a ~1% decline in their votes. A 1% swing will not change most ...


8

The mortality rate of Covid-19 is somewhere in the range of 1.5% to 2.5%, depending on the statistical assumptions one makes. While large for a virus — comparable to the Spanish Flu death rate, and far larger than the typical flu mortality rate of .1% — we can expect that the ultimate death toll will be significantly less that 1% of the US population (3.5 ...


-1

This is not exactly answerable as asked for lack of precedents, but the effects could be quite varied depending on the existing circumstances. On one hand, almost nothing noticeable might happen other than the cementing of a two-party structure in a country that already has a de facto such structure, e.g. the USA. On the other hand, if the minority parties ...


5

It simply means is that the party (House Democrats in this case) is split into two (or more) factions -- one is expected to vote for the $1 trillion infratructure bill, the other is not (they're not opposed to the bill in principle, they just want to wait for the Senate Democrats to pass the more progressive $3.5 trillion bill by reconciliation). Since the ...


13

What does AP mean by a "party split"? AP is using the term to talk about a divide in a party that prevents the party from passing legislation. In this case, "Some 50 members of the Congressional Progressive Caucus plan to vote against the bipartisan measure." Centrist want the measure to pass. The measure is a "$1 trillion public ...


1

This doesn't fully fit the bill but is an interesting example nonetheless. Remember that the two-term limit wasn't actually enshrined in the constitution until the 22nd Amendment was passed in 1951 after Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected a total of four times between 1932 and 1944. It was only considered good form prior to said amendment in part because ...


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